The Opening of the Book of Manzhumah al-Baiquniyyah

The Manzhumah al - baiquniyyah book

بسم الله الرّحمن الرّحيم

اَبْدَأُ بِا لْحَمْدِ مُصَلِّيًا عَلَى # مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرِ نَبِيٍّ اُرْسِلاَ

وَ ذِى مِنْ اَقْسَامِ الْحَدِيْثِ عِدَّةْ # وَكُلُّ وَاحِدِ اَتَى وَحَدَّه

Here's the translation :

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.

I commence (the book Manzhumah al-Baiquniyyah) with praising (Allah SWT.) and invoking (the blessings) of Allah SWT. upon (the Prophet) Muhammad (PBUH), who is the best of (the) prophets sent (by Allah SWT.).

And this (book Manzhumah al-Baiquniyyah is a book that contains) from the sections (of) Hadith knowledge in the form of numbers (meaning it consists of 34 arranged lines). And each of them will be presented and (accompanied) by its reference (explanation/commentary).

Pesantren Dialect :

Kalawan nyebut jenengan Allah kang welas asih didun’yane lan welas asih diakhirate.

Ngawitan isun ing iki kitab, kalawan muji ing Allah hale maca shalawat isun ingatase nabi Muhammad Saw. Kang dadi pang bagus – baguse nabi kang den utus iyeu nabi.

Utawi iki kitab saking pirang – pirang babagian hadis, iku bilangan/itungan (34 bait). Utawi saban – saban sawiji iku bakal teka/datang iyeu kullu wahidi lan patokanana kullu wahidi.

Sharh / Explanation :

1. بسم الله الرّحمن الرّحيم

The author of the book, or mushannif, is Sheikh Thaha or Umar bin Muhammad bin Futuh al-Baiquni, a hadith scholar who passed away around the year 1080 H/1669 M. He begins his writing by mentioning the name of Allah SWT in the phrase "bismillahirrahmaanirrahim." In one interpretation, it is mentioned that the meaning of "ar-Rahman" is the Most Compassionate. That is, Allah SWT is Most Compassionate to all His creations, whether humans, animals, plants, and others. He is compassionate to Muslims and non-Muslims alike, to the righteous and the disobedient. Allah SWT is compassionate to all, providing sustenance, provisions, and life. As for "ar-Rahim," it means the Most Merciful. Allah SWT is Most Merciful specifically to those who are obedient to Him. Thus, for those who are obedient to Allah SWT, besides His compassion, He also bestows His mercy.

In another interpretation, it is mentioned that the meaning of the phrase "bismillahirrahmaanirrahim" is to mention the name of Allah SWT who provides great blessings in the world and smaller blessings in the Hereafter. The meaning is that the blessings of the world, when considered in terms of what is given, are great. However, in terms of enjoyment, the blessings of the world are insignificant compared to the blessings of the Hereafter. Nevertheless, in terms of what is given, those who are given blessings in the world are numerous, while those who will be given blessings in the Hereafter are few. Only those who believe in and obey Allah SWT will receive them.

As for the evidence or recommendation to begin everything with the phrase "bismillah," it is a hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which states:

كل أمر ذي بال لا يبدأ فيه ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم فهو أبتر أو أقطع أو أجذم

"Every good deed, which is not initiated with 'bismillahirrahmanirrahim,' then that deed is considered abtar, aqtha', or ajdzam."

The word "بال" can be interpreted as honor, greatness, or condition and can also be interpreted as a condition that is deemed important by the Sharia. The intended importance here is that the deed is recommended or allowed in the Sharia, not something inherently prohibited or disliked. Therefore, when performing trivial or lowly tasks, it is not recommended to recite the basmallah, such as when sweeping or cleaning animal waste. [1]

Referring to the same reference, Sheikh Nawawi explains the meanings of abtar, aqtha', and ajdzam. The meaning of abtar is the one whose tail is cut off, aqtha' refers to a person whose hands are cut off or one of them is cut off, while ajdzam is the one whose hands are cut off or interpreted as someone who has lost fingers. Thus, the conclusion drawn from the meaning of the hadith above is that every good deed, meaning a deed recommended and allowed in the Sharia, if it is not initiated by reciting bismillahirrahmanirrahim, then that deed is like an animal whose tail is cut off, or a person whose hands are cut off, or a person who has lost their fingers. In other words, the deed performed is not perfect, lacks blessings, has deficiencies, or defects, even though outwardly the deed is completed.

2. اَبْدَأُ بِا لْحَمْدِ مُصَلِّيًا عَلَى # مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرِ نَبِيٍّ اُرْسِلاَ

After the author, or mushannif, initiates his writing with the phrase 'bismillah,' which is often referred to as Ibtida Haqiqi', he then begins his writing again by praising Allah SWT (hamdalah), which is often referred to as Ibtida Idhafi'. Ibtida Haqiqi is the actual beginning or opening sentence that is not preceded by any other sentence. Meanwhile, Ibtida Idhafi is the opening sentence that is preceded by another sentence.

Sheikh Umar bin Muhammad bin Futuh al-Baiquni, as the author of the book Manzhumah al-Baiquniyyah, starts his book by praising Allah SWT and follows it by sending blessings upon Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the best of the prophets sent by Allah SWT. Uttering hamdalah and sending blessings upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a tradition or custom of scholars when starting their writings. Hamdalah is directed to Allah SWT for all His blessings, grace, and gifts to His creations. And sending blessings upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a form of prayer to always be granted mercy and salvation. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:

أَخْبَرَنَا الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ الْقَطَّانُ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ عَمَّارٍ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْحَمِيدِ بْنُ أَبِي الْعِشْرِينَ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا الأَوْزَاعِيُّ، عَنْ قُرَّةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ‏:‏ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ‏:‏ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ ذِي بَالٍ لاَ يُبْدَأُ فِيهِ بِحَمْدِ اللهِ، فَهُوَ أَقْطَعُ [2]

It means:

"Al-Husain bin Abdillah al-Qaththan informed us, he said: Hisyam bin Ammar narrated to us, he said: Abdul Hamid bin Abi 'Isyriyna narrated to us, he said: al-Auzai' narrated to us, from Qurrah, from al-Zuhri, from Abu Salamah, from Abu Hurairah, he said: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said: 'Every good deed (in the Sharia) that is not initiated with hamdalah (praising Allah), then that deed is cut off (lacks blessings)."

Regarding sending blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ الْمُرَادِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ عَنْ حَيْوَةَ وَسَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ وَغَيْرِهِمَا عَنْ كَعْبِ بْنِ عَلْقَمَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ الْمُؤَذِّنَ فَقُولُوا مِثْلَ مَا يَقُولُ ثُمَّ صَلُّوا عَلَيَّ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ صَلَاةً صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بِهَا عَشْرًا ثُمَّ سَلُوا اللَّهَ لِي الْوَسِيلَةَ فَإِنَّهَا مَنْزِلَةٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ لَا تَنْبَغِي إِلَّا لِعَبْدٍ مِنْ عِبَادِ اللَّهِ وَأَرْجُو أَنْ أَكُونَ أَنَا هُوَ فَمَنْ سَأَلَ لِي الْوَسِيلَةَ حَلَّتْ لَهُ الشَّفَاعَةُ [3]

“Muhammad bin Salamah al-Muradiy meriwayatkan kepada kami, Abdullah bin Wahb meriwayatkan kepada kami dari Haiwah dan Said bin Abi Ayyub, dan orang lain selain keduanya, dari Ka’ab bin Alqamah, dari Abdurrahman bin Jubair, dari Abdullah bin Amr bin Ash, bahwa dia mendengar Nabi Muhammad SAW bersabda: 'Jika kamu mendengar muadhin (panggilan salat), maka ulangi apa yang dia ucapkan, lalu kirimkan shalawat kepadaku, siapa pun yang mengirimkan shalawat kepadaku satu kali, maka Allah akan melakukannya kirimkanlah shalawat kepadanya sebanyak sepuluh kali. Maka mohonlah kepada Allah agar diberikan kepadaku Al-Wasilah, karena itu adalah derajat di surga yang diperuntukkan bagi seorang hamba Allah, aku berharap aku menjadi hamba itu. maka dia berhak menerima syafaatku.'"

3. وَ ذِى مِنْ اَقْسَامِ الْحَدِيْثِ عِدَّةْ # وَكُلُّ وَاحِدِ اَتَى وَحَدَّه

"In this stanza, Sheikh Umar bin Muhammad bin Futuh al-Baiquni explains that a hadith consists of several parts. Among these parts, they can be observed in terms of quantity and quality. Based on the quantity or number of narrators, there are Mutawatir hadiths and Ahad hadiths. Meanwhile, based on quality, there are Sahih, Hasan, and Dhaif hadiths. Additionally, in terms of their sources or foundations, there are Marfu, Mauquf, and Maqthu hadiths. Furthermore, regarding the continuity or discontinuity of the chain of narration, there are Muttashil, Mursal, Munqathi, Mu’dhal, Muallaq, and others. In this stanza, the author (Sheikh Umar bin Muhammad bin Futuh al-Baiquni) indicates his intention to bring forth and elucidate each part of the hadith along with its explanation.

Author: Mushpih Kawakibil Hijaj.

References:

[1] Syaikh Nawawi al-Bantani, "Kasyifatus Saja Syarhu Safinatinnaja," (Beirut: Daar Ibnu Hazm, 1432 H/2011 M), page 26.

[2] Ibnu Hibban, "Shahih Ibnu Hibban," (unknown location: Muasasah al-Risalah, no publication year), page 173.

[3] Imam Muslim, "Shahih Muslim," (unknown location: Darul Ilmiyah, 2016), page 130.

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