Definition, Aspects, Patterns and Goals of Motivation

Definition of Motivation

Definition of Motivation

Motivation derives from the Latin word "Movere," which means the power to move. Motivation exists only within humans, while other creatures do not possess motivation. The necessity for motivation arises so that humans are driven to work or live optimally in realizing their goals or aspirations.

Motivation is considered essential because it is expected to inspire people to lead optimal and productive lives. However, the process of motivating is challenging since it requires understanding the needs and wants of each individual. While the needs of individuals are similar, such as the need for food and drink, their wants vary based on personal preferences, such as liking spicy, sweet, or salty foods. This influences how we motivate someone based on their needs and wants.

In motivating, it is crucial to realize that a person will be motivated if we can understand and fulfill their needs or desires. As explained earlier, motivation lies within the individual, not outside of them.

An individual who is motivated can be identified by how they lead their lives. A motivated person will find enthusiasm and zeal in their work, leading to increased productivity in all their activities.

To provide a clearer understanding of motivation, the following are definitions from various experts:

Drs. Malayu S.P. Hasibuan

Motivation is the provision of a driving force that creates enthusiasm for work, encouraging people to collaborate, work effectively, and integrate all their efforts to achieve satisfaction.

Harold Koontz

Motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goal.

Wayne F. Cascio

Motivation is a force that results from an individual's desire to satisfy their needs (e.g., hunger, thirst, social approval).

In conclusion, motivation is the willingness to work optimally to achieve specific goals.

Aspects, Patterns, and Goals of Motivation

The aspects of motivation are divided into two: active and passive aspects, also known as dynamic and static aspects. The active/dynamic aspect is related to effort, where motivation can be introduced through the effort of "motivating." The passive/static aspect is related to human needs, aiming to obtain motivation for a more passionate and enthusiastic life.

Dr. David Mc. Clelland provides an explanation of motivation patterns:

1. Achievement Motivation: The desire to overcome challenges.
2. Affiliation Motivation: The drive to interact and form relationships with other humans.
3. Competence Motivation: The desire to achieve.
4. Power Motivation: The drive to control (with authority) a situation.

The goals of motivation are:

1. Instill enthusiasm and spirit in work.
2. Increase an individual's productivity.
3. Improve discipline in individuals.
4. Effectively manage one's life.
5. and so on.

Principles, Tools, and Types of Motivation

Principles of motivation include:

1. The principle of mutual involvement.
2. The principle of interconnected communication.
3. The principle of recognition.
4. The principle of empowerment.
5. and the principle of mutual reciprocity between one person and another in motivating.

Motivation tools include:

1. Material tools: Physical or tangible motivation tools, such as money and goods with market value, like vehicles and houses.
2. Non-material tools: Motivational tools in the form of items without market value but providing soul satisfaction, such as medals, certificates, and service stars.
3. Combination of Material and Non-material: Motivational tools given in both material (money and goods) and non-material (certificates and medals) forms to fulfill economic and spiritual needs, providing satisfaction and pride.

Types of motivation include:

1. Positive motivation: Motivating someone by giving rewards. Providing rewards increases a person's enthusiasm and motivation.
2. Negative motivation: Motivating someone by giving punishment. This makes a person concerned about undesirable situations in their life, motivating them to move towards a better direction.

Factors Inhibiting and Supporting Motivation

Factors inhibiting motivation include the difficulty of determining the right motivational tools due to varying wants of individuals. Supporting factors for motivation include the commonality in human needs, such as eating and drinking, which supports the development of motivation among different individuals, even if they have different wants.